domingo, 15 de julio de 2012

Fully Verified Winning System Since 1999 & Vip Club Picks!




Important: Those Comments Are STREAMED Live Out Of The Members Lounge. They Are 100% Authentic And Verifiable.
06:57 PM
Alan says:
i've been very successful lately.
02:33 AM
Michał says:
Amazing day for me! Thank you ZCODE (full package form Rangers!), Rolando, Steve.S, Alberto, Mike, Stanley, Jonathan, Cyril, Yasen. I placed few bets with yours yesteday picks, i added few mine pickes and i went 14-5-1! What a pity that my bankroll is not big enough ;)!

LA over 2.5 WIN
LA-DET over 5 WIN
LA ML WIN
LA X in reg LOST
Wahington Capitals ML WIN
capitals x WIN
capitals game under 5.5 LOST
Florida ML WIN
Dallas ML WIN
St. Louis ML LOST
St. Louis X WIN
St. Louis game under 5,5 LOST
Panthers over 2.5 WIN
Rangers ML WIN
Rangers -1 WIN
Rangers over 2,5 WIN
boston game over 5 WIN
Capitals -1 PUSH
calgary X in reg WIN
toronto x in reg LOST
03:14 AM
Stomach says:
Oh boy, I am on fire! Yet another winner!
03:50 AM
Danilo says:
+$654 for A-league PODers!
My Kings've finally started to play some hockey! That was only the lonely bet for me last night. So we coud say I went 100% haha
04:22 AM
Alberto says:
What a fantastic day again :)! You are awesome guys! lets keep rocking :)!
04:36 AM
Danilo says:
6.3.12 +1493
7.312 +760
8.3.12 +1032
9.3.12 +1064
10.3.12 +1725
11.3.12 +2253
12.3.12 +3226
13.3.12 +3970
14.3.12 +4624
04:46 AM
Kacper says:
WOW, I went 9-1 yesterday !! What a great tools and support, what a great comnunity ! What else to say ? THANK YOU :)
04:47 AM
Marko says:
I went 100% last night: PHI TTO won,LA ML won,LA -1 won,LA Over 5 won,WAS ML won,RANGERS ML,-1,TTO and TTU all won,MINN TTU,TOR TTU,DALL ML and PANTHERS ML,-1,TTO!!!
When I saw it I almost start crying.........thanks to all who post yesterday.
04:50 AM
Jonathan says:
Marko, 15-0 night, that is amazing!
06:25 AM
Tim says:
Another big day for Z-code.
Ranger,200 to win 109.29 won
Rangers,-1.0,200 to win 183.49 won
Washington,200 to win 176.99 won
San Jose/Calgary,over 5.0,200 to win 145.99 push
Detroit/Kings,over 5.0,200 to win 172.41 won
Total won=$642.18
That now takes me to $4,031.29 in 23 days.Thanks Z-code and to everyone who posts ideas in this forum.If anyone is thinking of giving up because this seems too hard,don't.It takes a week or two but it becomes easier the more you read all the posts.
01:43 PM
Jens says:
I must say we are a group of winners.
recap:
Dallas ML winn
Blues-Hawks OT winn
Panthers Over 2.5 winn
Panthers ML winn
L.A.Kings Over 2.5. winn
Capitals ML winn
Blues-Hawks U. 5.5 .Loss
Red Wings-L.A. O 5 winn
Boston -Tamba O 5.5. winn
Boston ML Loss
Rangers ML winn
Islander O 2.5. winn
Toronto U 2.5. winn
So I am so glad 11-2

and I still use a little bankroll but it is for sure getting bigger so a ROI last night of 61.9% Wow.
02:10 AM
Jonathan says:
NHL: WIN ML WON +200, ANA ML WON +200 = +400
NBA: PHI -2 LOSS -110, TOR +2 LOSS -110, DET +3.5 WON +100, DET ML WON +115 = -5
MLB: TOR ML WON +100, DET ML WON +100, DET -1.5 LOSS -100, WAS ML LOSS -110, SEA ML WON +100 = +90

Finished +485 for the day.
05:09 AM
Trey says:
I expect very profitable week on NBA / College Basketball
Like I said my systems work in cycles and now I am on the up-trend.
06:17 AM
Yasen says:
Nice evening - Avs draw + Avs+1 + Jets Ml + Detroit ML(not sure why I keep trusting them) = nice profit!
02:25 AM
Danilo says:
So Bernard won again right? haha Amazing streak continues - 17 in a row! Bravo!
04:10 AM
Michał says:
Great day for me. I hit 5/5 :)
Los Angeles Kings ML @2,01
Montreal Canadiens +1,5 @1,52
Oilers over 2,5 @1,66
Jets over 2,5 @1,67
Chicago Blackhawks at Dallas Stars UNDER 5,5 @1,78

http://zcodesystem.com/vipclub/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=135&p=1339#p1339
04:55 AM
Emil says:
2-0 nice :) Kings ML and OTT ML
04:55 AM
Daryl says:
Great day again thanks to Z-Code!! 4/4 Wins - DAL/CHI under 5.5, CHI +1.5, OTT/MON Under 5.5, and MON +1.5.
04:55 AM
Rolando says:
very good day for me as well. I was right on Ottawa, very strong oscillator signal there and they could find a power to win despite losing 1-0 whole game!
05:00 PM
Jens says:
Hi Stanley I agree I got ROI of 30% last night ...
Hope you post your picks at the forum again before the nights games
11:22 PM
MudRac says:
4-1 today,very good night,solid profit...We won on Flames under 5.5,Oilers under 5.5,Jackets TTU 2.5 and Jets TTO 2.5...We missed only Ducks vs Preds over 5(Ducks couldnt score anything).Low score in Calgary and Edmonton as we expected,not much goals from Jackets for us.Jets lost but scored 3 goals for TTO.Move on,next day is coming! Regards for all!
05:02 AM
Trey says:
Very good day for me again, 12 Wins, including 2 PODs on NHL, 5 losses , full package on MLB with new Zcode mlb-beta!

The sports are in a good balance. When MLB is going down usually I win big time on NBA/NHL like on Sunday.. When NHL fails I get my profit from MLB and basketball like yesterday :)
12:02 PM
Jens says:
Thanks Mike and I am thanksfull to be a part of this 100 percent winning team and will be around as long as Zcode HI HI
02:47 AM
Jonathan says:
Great Day!

GPDs:
MLB: Detroit -1.5 RL - WIN
NHL: Chicago -1.5 PL - WIN
NBA: Milwaukee +3.5 - WIN
Parylay: Chicago -1.5 PL and Milwaukee +3.5 - WIN

NHL PODs:
Chicago -1.5 PL - WIN
Pittsburgh -1.5 PL - WIN
Parlay: Chicago -1.5 PL and Pittsburgh -1.5 PL - WIN

Up over $700 for the day!
02:53 AM
Mark says:
Wow that's a great job. I think today was my best day of the season. 7-0 is really impressive Jonathan!
04:38 AM
Stomach says:
Kings won big time! Stamos is in profit!
05:48 AM
Stanley says:
I paid my dues, another profit cashed for mr. score
TOTAL: -600 + 709 -142 + 603 + 624 = 1,194 PROFIT
http://zcodesystem.com/vipclub/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=7&p=1724#p1724
will be drinking hard tonight. don't bet much today, games are kind of random like Mark said. Have patience and wait for the kill!
08:29 AM
Marko says:
One of the best nights this year!! Both my PODS(huge bets) hit, PITT and HAWKS!!
I even got -1.5 on both,Jonny I so happy for you,you deserved this kind of profit!
Trey and Alberto thank you for MLB picks,awesome ;) :)
10:02 AM
Daryl says:
Won 7 out of 7 bets yesterday - very happy - thx everyone!
04:25 PM
Leonard says:
Good job yesterday Al like I said you're the MAN.
04:57 PM
MudRac says:
I posted my pics for today.You are welcome to comment about them on forum.Regards and good luck for all!
05:38 PM
Alberto says:
My picks qlreqdy for those interested!
07:04 PM
Mike says:
Alberto and I are doing the research on the MLB hot trends for Zcode. Looks amazing so far! Dog trend shows $21,799 profit by betting $100 fixed. Very excited!!
01:31 AM
Sanin says:
if you would understand my english you will be win all picks today :D
recap

Pitsburg ML WIN
Philadelpia WIN
Tamba Bay WIN (some peaple dont trust me)
Calgary - Minesota Draw in reg WIN
Vancuver ML win
San Jose ML win
Coyotes - Avalance TU 5.5 WIN
LA KIngs ML WIN

after work i go drink
07:48 AM
Rolando says:
6 out of 7 on MLB. I won Kings yesterday, very low scoring day
03:10 AM
Sanin says:
quick recap:
Carolina ML loose
Jets ML WIN and draw in reg WIN
Devils loose
Baffalo ML win and draw in reg loose
Ottawa ML loose
Oilers ML win and draw in reg WIN

I play 3 parlays :Jets ML + Oilers ML + Baffalo ML = 15.5 coef = WIN
:Jets draw in reg + Baffalo draw in reg + Oilers draw in reg = 68 coef = Loose
:Carolina ML + Devils ML + TU 5.5 Rangers - Baffalo = 4.6 coef = loose
All bets 10$
03:20 AM
Sanin says:
How about baseball? Trey result 6-2 great!!!
03:22 AM
Stomach says:
I ended in a big profit thanks to trey
12:55 AM
Mark says:
GREAT day. Up 28 units counting an 8 unit win on Louisville in NCAA Basketball... so 20 units of hockey...

Someone called me crazy yesterday - crazy like a fox.

Stars ML - W
Wings Preds Pens parlay - W W L = L
Preds -1.5 small wager W
Wings -1.5 small wager - L
Penguins -1.5 small wager L
Wild small wager L
Habs small wager L
Islanders ML small wager L
Islanders Bruins Coyotes +1.5 parlay = big win
Coyotes ML small wager L
Bruins ML (Because I'm CRAAAAZY) 4 units pays 4.4 units W
Rangers POD huge wager = Win 10 units
Canucks POD huge wager = win 10 units

What a fantastic day! 5-5 on ML picks but won huge in confident bets. Bruins Rags and Canucks!
01:02 AM
Danilo says:
BUF ML won
NYR ML won
PIT ML lost
PHI PL -1 won
NYI ML lost
LAK lost
Parlay PHI+NAS+DET won

OK, I will have to learn some baseball I just copied picks from Alberto and I think there is 1 push but all others won - AMAZING JOB ALBERTO!
HURRY UP!
February 03, 2012: From The Desks of: Ron, Mike and Steve
Dear Facebook Follower And Valued Beta-Tester,
After years of development and months and months of live betatesting on Facebook, we are finally ready. Z-Code has gone private.
We are closing Z-Code to the public, removing it from the sight of prying eyes (and the Las Vegas conglomerate of betting sharks that definitely did not want us to succeed) and We will use it only for the sake of our members and obviously us, avid bettors and money makers.
Not much has to be said about this system, which is the pinnacle of our developer careers (even topping Fapturbo, I'd say)... because you, dear reader, experienced it first-hand...
Never has anyone in the betting niche given out a service or product to make money first and be charged later because they knew it would not work or that theirs was a crappy product.
You know that Z-Code works because you followed us on facebook and/or saw people there make money... with STEADY GAINS!
... we wanted to prove to you upfront and LIVE that we got something SPECIAL... something that can truly make a difference in your life, even if you are no sports fan or just a work-from-home mom who wants to make extra thousands a month.
You SAW us make money day in and day out, live and uncut, over facebook... more than 10,000 fans are proof of this.
In fact, Z-Code started to grow virally and more and more people came in by word of mouth... marvellous but dangerous as well, but let me explain.
In fact, over the betatesting months, we generated huge amounts of cash for ourselves and much, much more for the betatesting group.
The performance was fully verified by thousands of people who followed us on facebook during the last months commenting on every win or loss.
When you are winning, you don't have to hide your results. That’s why we agreed to perform a public monitoring of our results on an independent pick-monitor called Line.com as well.
During the last 2 months, we followed our system and documented all picks so anyone could verify them. We even got into the top 5 world cappers with Zcode!
Z-Code could be called a "Betting Robot" but actually it is much, much more. Let me explain.
Z-Code has been developed to provide us with winning sports predictions in:
NBA (Basketball)MLB (Baseball)NFL (Football)NHL (Hockey)
Why these specific sports you ask?
First, because they are popular and therefore allow high volume betting with the bookies (above 10s of thousands of $$$ per single bet) and second, because we wanted to rake in profits all year long and not just for a season or two while having to sit out all the other action.
Coming from the currency market scene (Forex), we decided that we wanted to have an "AUTOMATED" money-making system that would choose winning picks based on a precise and powerful prediction model.
We wanted to "trade" in the sports niche just like we traded currencies in the forex market. Little did we know that all the work would pay off in such a grand way!
Sports betting is a HUGE industry! Billions of dollars float out there waiting to be grabbed and with a mathematical approach, you can get the edge needed!!
Zcode \
It takes into account over 80 different parameters in every game such as player conditions, injuries, home or away team, goalies, past performance, predicted future performance, trainers, events, importance of match, rivalries, feuds, and so MUCH more to calculate a very precise outcome.
Z-Code is not looking for only a winner and a loser. It seeks the "value" in each game... where you can make the most money with the smallest risk possible... therefore it predicts bets such as "how many goals will fall" or " who's going to score the most points" or "will there be more than 5 goals or less"...
seeking the value in every game and giving you the most earnings!
Where Emotions Fail.. Calculations Prevail!
Z-Code is a robot!
... it`s a machine, a "code" so to speak... it has no favourite players or teams... it is ice cold and tracks performance & performance only! Handicappers that predict games tend to have favourites, even if they don`t admit it... their choices are emotional... and without 100% objectivity, you can never be as accurate as a proven prediction model... that`s why, we eat handicappers for breakfast!
After 27 months sitting in dark rooms studying algorithms and formulae... with an army of 21 programmers and paying salaries of well over $200,000 (!!) we finally hit the jackpot!
Z-CODE was born.. and we started raking in profits while putting it to the test LIVE, made available to see in front of thousands on our facebook betatester group!
It was very important to us because we wanted to PROVE, upfront without any possibility of doubt, that Z-code would make each and every single user money.
Z-Code pulls in profits on time, every time. We not only claim but prove here... and NOW that Z-Code is consistently making big gains with:
4 months of public betatesting on Facebook.
The only system fully backtested back to 1999.
Proven profitable, never having had a losing month.. NOT ONCE!
Doubling accounts every month proven again by,
2 Public verified accounts on a 3rd party monitor,
one called Mike-Tester and the other one called The Xcode (that was renamed to Zcode)
February:
64 - 51,
+$10,095 Profit. Account doubled. 
March:
109 - 105,
+$10,163 Profit. Account doubled. 
We didn't just double those test accounts once... not twice.. but 3 times just for the sake of proving our claims!! After all, talk is cheap these days.. you have to put your money where your mouth is!
Remember our 3 day journey where we commented picks of Z-Code in detail and showed people how to make money in 4 days from April 13th 2012 till April 17th ???
Download Those PDF Reports here and see for yourself how much money you would have made had you been a happy Z-Code camper!
  • VIP Membership with instant access to all the Winning Sports Picks!
  • The video tutorials showing you EXACTLY how to use the predictions & picks easy to understand even if you know nothing of sports at all.
  • The comprehensive Guide, FAQ & Money management System already in place. No more guesswork. The full 100% blueprint for extra income right at your fingertips
  • The well-trained, friendly support team lead by our support chief, Anny.
We have everything covered and eliminated every hurdle and every impediment there could possibly be!
3 steps to start making money with Z-Code System VIP club

We have been working with so many of you and we enjoyed your input... but the real reason for going private is that we want US and YOU to keep profiting from this unique approach for a lifetime...
If you are looking for GAMBLING ADVICE, this is not for you! We are here to make money and help YOU WIN with us! It`s about investing into sports and reaping insane amounts of money every single month. If you like the thrill of potentially losing your bet, try blackjack or poker. We do NOT follow sports for the sake of gambling, nor are we sports fanatics... This is a business for us and strictly so...

However not everything is good... because it`s all about the timing...
Unfortunately, good things can not be open for everyone but an inner circle of trusted ones. As the saying goes, too many cooks ruin the soup... we must limit the membership in order to keep the odds of the bookmakers in our favour and keep milking them like the fat cows they are to us ;)
Remember, if too many people are using the same system, it will become ineffective as the odds will be influenced.
Now, you are definitely in luck and at a very important point in your life. You've got the chance to stay in the inner circle and keep making profits with Zcode, or you can leave and give your seat to another happy camper because... and this is very important
There are not enough Z-Code

Memberships For Everyone :(

In fact, it wasn`t an easy decision but in order to maintain the functionality and integrity of Z-Code we plan to close our doors as soon as we fill our spots!
Hurry up while the doors are still open! 3654 People on the Waiting List + Over 10,000 Facebook Fans who know of Z-Code's Efficiency. You Do The Math.
Check out what betatesters are saying about Zcode System
We`d love nothing more than to give Z-Code to all of you guys, but as we said before, that is simply not doable... and we sincerely apologize for that...
Success coaches teach a very important thing early on that is an important lesson for everyone and so true when it comes to personal taste.
Every one of us has personal preferences and filters emotions, ideas and concepts already on a subconscious level.
Basically, we already say NO to things on a subconscious level even before we actually think about it...
Now, what has this to do with sports?
Simple! If you are not a sports fan, you already ignore or disregard monetary gains from this direction. Basically, your subconscious tells you, "NAAAH! its sports, we don`t like sports".
But what about the MONEY? Isn`t that the driving point in this whole story? After all, we are all in it for the money... some more, some less... but what you NEED to do here is clear yourself of emotions and think rationally.
Would you rather grind your life through a boring day-job or effortlessly place a few bets in a couple of minutes a day on events you don't give a damn about?
Actually, if you don`t like sports, its even simpler because your emotions are left out of the equation, letting you follow the system and make even more money than a sports lover could do, because they tend to take sides :)
SO, the lesson here is:
Don`t frame your thinking... expand your horizon, take all the factors in consciously and make an informed decision... don't indulge in self-sabotage but instead, just focus on the goal:
Make Money From Home The Easy Way And Reward Yourself With The Most Precious Thing We've Got: TIME
Question: So how much is it going to cost?
Answer: Not nearly as much as you might think...
Unlike other betting services we want to profit WITH and not FROM you... that's why we do not charge insane ammounts like USD $2,000 a month even though we easily could.
We KNOW that you will be successful and rather go for a long-term happy relationship instead of a bogus rip-off, that usually consists of a scammer selling his "advice" for money instead of a highly advanced computer system such as Z-Code.
Thats why Z-code is, even though limited in copies, priced at only $198 USD / month...including all picks, all updates, forum membership, tutorial videos and community help. And not just single picks being sold at rip-off prices.
But who am I kidding? You already KNOW that, because you experienced it first hand by making money along with us over the past 2 months already. Click the link below and secure your spot before it's gone forever and someone else is enjoying your profits.

YES! I understand I join the Z-Code private club and receive all future updates for free as a part of my membership with no extra costs. This includes NHL, NBA, MLB and NFL sport predictions & picks and future updates for life as long as I retain my membership.
YES! I understand that, should I fail to cover the monthly membership fee, my membership will be void and my seat be given to another happy camper on the waiting list (3654 as of now)
YES! I understand that Z-Code beta is an on-going development, which means the programmers always keep tweaking and improving it, so all updates will be included in my membership at no extra cost.



The Z-Code Software can be accessed right away. You will get INSTANT ACCESS right after your purchase. For any queries or questions, please feel free to email . You will be answered asap or within 24 hours.
Steve C. & Mike
And the whole Z-Code programming team
24 programmers and support staff lead by Alex John, Alexander and Rustam:
Find out more about the people behind Z-Code and our experts

Ps: As soon as we sell out our private spots we will close this page. You will not be able to purchase membership for Z-Code any longer. Please understand that the availability is limited by membership count as well and we reserve the rights to close this page even earlier.
ClickBank is a registered trademark of Keynetics Inc., a Delaware corporation. www.Zcodesystem.com is not affiliated with Keynetics Inc. in any way, nor does Keynetics Inc. sponsor or approve any www.Zcodesystem.com products. Keynetics Inc. expresses no opinion as to the correctness of any of the statements made by www.Zcodesystem.com in the materials on this Web page. Any income claims are typical of top performers not all users and your results will vary. These results are as reported in testimonials from members using the Zcodesystem. Check Terms & Conditions and Disclaimer for full information. By purchasing any of our products, you agree to the Zcodesystem Terms & Conditions.

DEFINITIONS:


Software
Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some reasons. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched".[1] Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records.[2]
Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Programs are an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler.
Contents  [hide] 
1 History
2 Types of software
2.1 System software
2.2 Programming software
2.3 Application software
3 Software topics
3.1 Architecture
3.2 Documentation
3.3 Library
3.4 Standard
3.5 Execution
3.6 Quality and reliability
3.7 License
3.8 Patents
4 Design and implementation
5 Industry and organizations
6 See also
7 References
8 External links
[edit]History


For the history prior to 1946, see History of computing hardware.


This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. (January 2012)
The first theory about software was proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem (Decision problem).[3] The term "software" was first used in print by John W. Tukey in 1958.[4] Colloquially, the term is often used to mean application software. In computer science and software engineering, software is all information processed by computer system, programs and data.[4] The academic fields studying software are computer science and software engineering.
The history of computer software is most often traced back to the first software bug in 1946[citation needed]. As more and more programs enter the realm of firmware, and the hardware itself becomes smaller, cheaper and faster as predicted by Moore's law, elements of computing first considered to be software, join the ranks of hardware. Most hardware companies today have more software programmers on the payroll than hardware designers[citation needed], since software tools have automated many tasks of Printed circuit board engineers. Just like the Auto industry, the Software industry has grown from a few visionaries operating out of their garage with prototypes. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates were the Henry Ford and Louis Chevrolet of their times[citation needed], who capitalized on ideas already commonly known before they started in the business. In the case of Software development, this moment is generally agreed to be the publication in the 1980s of the specifications for the IBM Personal Computer published by IBM employee Philip Don Estridge. Today his move would be seen as a type of crowd-sourcing.
Until that time, software was bundled with the hardware by Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) such as Data General, Digital Equipment and IBM[citation needed]. When a customer bought a minicomputer, at that time the smallest computer on the market, the computer did not come with Pre-installed software, but needed to be installed by engineers employed by the OEM. Computer hardware companies not only bundled their software, they also placed demands on the location of the hardware in a refrigerated space called a computer room. Most companies had their software on the books for 0 dollars, unable to claim it as an asset (this is similar to financing of popular music in those days). When Data General introduced the Data General Nova, a company called Digidyne wanted to use its RDOS operating system on its own hardware clone. Data General refused to license their software (which was hard to do, since it was on the books as a free asset), and claimed their "bundling rights". The Supreme Court set a precedent called Digidyne v. Data General in 1985. The Supreme Court let a 9th circuit decision stand, and Data General was eventually forced into licensing the Operating System software because it was ruled that restricting the license to only DG hardware was an illegal tying arrangement.[5] Soon after, IBM 'published' its DOS source for free,[citation needed] and Microsoft was born. Unable to sustain the loss from lawyer's fees, Data General ended up being taken over by EMC Corporation. The Supreme Court decision made it possible to value software, and also purchase Software patents. The move by IBM was almost a protest at the time. Few in the industry believed that anyone would profit from it other than IBM (through free publicity). Microsoft and Apple were able to thus cash in on 'soft' products.
There are many successful companies today that sell only software products, though there are still many common software licensing problems due to the complexity of designs and poor documentation, leading to patent trolls.
With open software specifications and the possibility of software licensing, new opportunities arose for software tools that then became the de facto standard, such as DOS for operating systems, but also various proprietary word processing and spreadsheet programs. In a similar growth pattern, proprietary development methods became standard Software development methodology.
Types of software
A layer structure showing where the operating system software and application software are situated while running on a typical desktop computer
Software includes all the various forms and roles that digitally stored data may have and play in a computer (or similar system), regardless of whether the data is used as code for a CPU, or other interpreter, or whether it represents other kinds of information. Software thus encompasses a wide array of products that may be developed using different techniques such as ordinary programming languages, scripting languages, microcode, or an FPGA configuration.
The types of software include web pages developed in languages and frameworks like HTML, PHP, Perl, JSP, ASP.NET, XML, and desktop applications like OpenOffice.org, Microsoft Word developed in languages like C, C++, Objective-C, Java, C#, or Smalltalk. Application software usually runs on an underlying software operating systems such as Linux or Microsoft Windows. Software (or firmware) is also used in video games and for the configurable parts of the logic systems of automobiles, televisions, and other consumer electronics.
Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes[citation needed]: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.
[edit]System software
Main article: System software
System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware to provide basic functionality and to provide a platform for running application software.[6][7] System software includes device drivers, operating systems, servers, utilities, and window systems.
System software is responsible for managing a variety of independent hardware components, so that they can work together harmoniously. Its purpose is to unburden the application software programmer from the often complex details of the particular computer being used, including such accessories as communications devices, printers, device readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.
[edit]Programming software
Main article: Programming tool
Programming software include tools in the form of programs or applications that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers to relatively simple programs such as compilers, debuggers, interpreters, linkers, and text editors, that can be combined together to accomplish a task, much as one might use multiple hand tools to fix a physical object. Programming tools are intended to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and they may be combined in an integrated development environment (IDE) to more easily manage all of these functions.
[edit]Application software
Main article: Application software
Application software is developed to perform in any task that benefits from computation. It is a set of programs that allows the computer to perform a specific data processing job for the user. It is a broad category, and encompasses software of many kinds, including the internet browser being used to display this page.
[edit]Software topics


[edit]Architecture
See also: Software architecture
Users often see things differently than programmers. People who use modern general purpose computers (as opposed to embedded systems, analog computers and supercomputers) usually see three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.
Platform software: Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system, and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the computer. On a PC you will usually have the ability to change the platform software.
Application software: Application software or Applications are what most people think of when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games. Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they run as independent applications. Applications are usually independent programs from the operating system, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think of compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications.
User-written software: End-user development tailors systems to meet users' specific needs. User software include spreadsheet templates and word processor templates. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. Depending on how competently the user-written software has been integrated into default application packages, many users may not be aware of the distinction between the original packages, and what has been added by co-workers.
Documentation
Main article: Software documentation
Most software has software documentation so that the end user can understand the program, what it does, and how to use it. Without clear documentation, software can be hard to use—especially if it is very specialized and relatively complex like Photoshop or AutoCAD.
Developer documentation may also exist, either with the code as comments and/or as separate files, detailing how the programs works and can be modified.
Library
Main article: Software library
An executable is almost always not sufficiently complete for direct execution. Software libraries include collections of functions and functionality that may be embedded in other applications. Operating systems include many standard Software libraries, and applications are often distributed with their own libraries.
[edit]Standard
Main article: Software standard
Since software can be designed using many different programming languages and in many different operating systems and operating environments, software standard is needed so that different software can understand and exchange information between each other. For instance, an email sent from a Microsoft Outlook should be readable from Yahoo! Mail and vice versa.
[edit]Execution
Main article: Execution (computing)
Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as the hard drive or memory). Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation – moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the control flow of instructions.
Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by using "pointers" to data instead. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the value of a variable data element. More complex computations may involve many operations and data elements together.
Quality and reliability
Main articles: Software quality, Software testing, and Software reliability
Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software like Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows and Linux. If software is faulty (buggy), it can delete a person's work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called "bugs." Many bugs are discovered and eliminated (debugged) through software testing. However, software testing rarely – if ever – eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every program has at least one more bug" (Lubarsky's Law). All major software companies, such as Microsoft, Novell and Sun Microsystems, have their own software testing departments with the specific goal of just testing. Software can be tested through unit testing, regression testing and other methods, which are done manually, or most commonly, automatically, since the amount of code to be tested can be quite large. For instance, NASA has extremely rigorous software testing procedures for many operating systems and communication functions. Many NASA based operations interact and identify each other through command programs called software. This enables many people who work at NASA to check and evaluate functional systems overall. Programs containing command software enable hardware engineering and system operations to function much easier together.
License
Main article: Software license
The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment. Some software comes with the license when purchased off the shelf, or an OEM license when bundled with hardware. Other software comes with a free software license, granting the recipient the rights to modify and redistribute the software. Software can also be in the form of freeware or shareware.
Patents
Main articles: Software patent and Software patent debate
Software can be patented in some but not all countries; however, software patents can be controversial in the software industry with many people holding different views about it. The controversy over software patents is about specific algorithms or techniques that the software contains, which may not be duplicated by others and considered intellectual property and copyright infringement depending on the severity.
Design and implementation


Main articles: Software development, Computer programming, and Software engineering
Design and implementation of software varies depending on the complexity of the software. For instance, design and creation of Microsoft Word software will take much more time than designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because of the difference in functionalities in each one.
Software is usually designed and created (coded/written/programmed) in integrated development environments (IDE) like Eclipse, Emacs and Microsoft Visual Studio that can simplify the process and compile the program. As noted in different section, software is usually created on top of existing software and the application programming interface (API) that the underlying software provides like GTK+, JavaBeans or Swing. Libraries (APIs) are categorized for different purposes. For instance, JavaBeans library is used for designing enterprise applications, Windows Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface (GUI) applications like Microsoft Word, and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services. Underlying computer programming concepts like quicksort, hashtable, array, and binary tree can be useful to creating software. When a program is designed, it relies on the API. For instance, if a user is designing a Microsoft Windows desktop application, he/she might use the .NET Windows Forms library to design the desktop application and call its APIs like Form1.Close() and Form1.Show()[8] to close or open the application and write the additional operations him/herself that it need to have. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these APIs him/herself. Companies like Sun Microsystems, Novell, and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many applications are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them.
Computer software has special economic characteristics that make its design, creation, and distribution different from most other economic goods.[specify][9][10]
A person who creates software is called a programmer, software engineer, software developer, or code monkey, terms that all have a similar meaning.
Industry and organizations


Main article: Software industry
A great variety of software companies and programmers in the world comprise a software industry. Software can be quite a profitable industry: Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft was the richest person in the world in 2009 largely by selling the Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office software products. The same goes for Larry Ellison, largely through his Oracle database software. Through time the software industry has become increasingly specialized.
Non-profit software organizations include the Free Software Foundation, GNU Project and Mozilla Foundation. Software standard organizations like the W3C, IETF develop software standards so that most software can interoperate through standards such as XML, HTML, HTTP or FTP.
Other well-known large software companies include Novell, SAP, Symantec, Adobe Systems, and Corel, while small companies often provide innovation.


Afrikaans

Sagteware
Rekenaarsagteware, of net sagteware, is 'n versameling van rekenaarprogramme en verwante data wat die instruksies vir die vertel van 'n rekenaar wat om te doen en hoe om dit te doen. Sagteware verwys na een of meer rekenaar programme en data wat in die stoor van die rekenaar vir 'n paar redes. Met ander woorde, die sagteware is 'n reeks van programme, prosedures, algoritmes en sy dokumentasie wat betrokke is met die werking van 'n verwerking van data. Program sagteware verrig die funksie van die program geïmplementeer word, hetsy deur direkte instruksies aan die rekenaar hardeware of deur te dien as inset tot nog 'n stukkie van sagteware. Die term is geskep om te kontrasteer die ou term hardeware (betekenis fisiese toestelle). In teenstelling met die hardeware, sagteware "kan nie geraak word nie". [1] sagteware word soms ook gebruik in 'n meer beperkte sin, wat beteken dat slegs die toepassing sagteware. Soms is die term sluit inligting wat tradisioneel nie geassosieer word met rekenaars, soos film, bande, en rekords. [2]
Rekenaarprogrammatuur word so genoem om dit te onderskei van rekenaar hardeware, wat die fisiese verbindings en toerusting wat nodig is om te bewaar en uit te voer (of lopie) die sagteware sluit. Op die laagste vlak, uitvoerbare kode bestaan ​​van die masjien taal instruksies wat spesifiek is aan 'n individu verwerker. 'N masjien taal bestaan ​​uit groepe van binêre waardes te dui verwerker instruksies wat die toestand van die rekenaar van die voorafgaande toestand verander. Programme is 'n geordende volgorde van instruksies vir die verandering van die toestand van die rekenaar in 'n spesifieke volgorde. Dit word gewoonlik in hoë-vlak programmeringsomgewing tale wat is makliker en meer effektief vir mense (nader aan natuurlike taal) as masjien taal te gebruik. Hoë-vlak tale opgestel of vertolk in die masjien taal object code. Sagteware kan ook in 'n vergadering taal geskryf word, in wese, 'n geheue voorstelling van 'n masjien taal met behulp van 'n natuurlike taal alfabet. Saamsteltaal moet versamel word in die voorwerp kode via 'n assembler.
Inhoud [versteek]
1 Geskiedenis
2 tipes van sagteware
2.1 Stelselsagteware
2.2 Programmering sagteware
2.3 Toepassingsprogrammatuur
3 Sagteware onderwerpe
3,1 Argitektuur
3,2 Dokumentasie
3,3 Biblioteek
3,4 Standard
3,5 Uitvoering
3,6 kwaliteit en betroubaarheid
3,7 lisensie
3,8 patente
4 Ontwerp en implementering
5 Nywerheid en organisasies
6 Sien ook
7 Verwysings
8 Eksterne skakels
[Wysig] Geskiedenis


Vir die geskiedenis voor 1946, geskiedenis van die rekenaar hardeware.


Hierdie afdeling moet dalk heeltemal herskryf word om te voldoen aan Wikipedia se gehalte standaarde. Jy kan help. Die bespreking bladsy kan voorstelle bevat. (Januarie 2012)
Die eerste teorie oor sagteware is voorgestel deur Alan Turing in sy 1935 opstel Berekenbare met 'n aansoek aan die Entscheidungsproblem (besluit probleem). [3] Die term "sagteware" is vir die eerste keer in die gedrukte media gebruik deur John W. Tukey in 1958. [4 die volksmond, word dikwels die term wat gebruik word om toepassingsagteware te beteken. In rekenaarwetenskap en sagteware-ingenieurswese, sagteware is alle inligting verwerk deur 'n rekenaar stelsel, programme en data [4]. Die akademiese velde te bestudeer sagteware is rekenaarwetenskap en sagteware-ingenieurswese.
Die geskiedenis van die rekenaar sagteware word dikwels teruggevoer word na die eerste sagteware fout in 1946 [verwysing benodig]. Soos meer en meer programme in die koninkryk van firmware, en die hardeware self word kleiner, goedkoper en vinniger, soos voorspel deur Moore se wet, elemente van die berekening van eerste wees om programmatuur, sluit aan by die geledere van die hardeware. Die meeste hardeware maatskappye vandag meer sagteware program op die betaalstaat as hardeware ontwerpers [verwysing benodig], aangesien sagteware gereedskap baie take van Printplaat ingenieurs geoutomatiseer. Net soos die motor-industrie, het die sagteware-industrie gegroei van 'n paar visionairen bedryf van hul garage met prototipes. Steve Jobs en Bill Gates was die Henry Ford en Louis Chevrolet van hul tyd [verwysing benodig], wat gekapitaliseer op idees wat reeds algemeen bekend, voordat hulle in die besigheid begin het. In die geval van sagteware-ontwikkeling, is oor die algemeen hierdie oomblik ingestem het tot die publikasie in die 1980's van die spesifikasies vir die IBM Persoonlike rekenaar deur IBM werknemer Philip Don Estridge gepubliseer. Vandag is sy skuif sou gesien word as 'n tipe van die skare-sourcing.
Tot daardie tyd, is sagteware wat saam met die hardeware Oorspronklike Toerusting Vervaardigers (OTVs) soos Data-generaal, digitale toerusting en IBM [verwysing benodig]. Wanneer 'n kliënt gekoop het 'n mini, op daardie tydstip die kleinste rekenaar op die mark, het die rekenaar nie met 'n Pre-geïnstalleerde sagteware, maar wat nodig is om deur die ingenieurs in diens van die OEM geïnstalleer word. Computer Hardware maatskappye nie net bundel hul sagteware, het hulle ook eise gestel oor die ligging van die hardeware in 'n verkoelde ruimte het 'n rekenaar kamer. Die meeste maatskappye het hulle sagteware op die boeke vir 0 dollars, nie in staat is om dit te eis as 'n bate (dit is soortgelyk aan die finansiering van populêre musiek in daardie dae). Wanneer Data General lei die Data General Nova, 'n maatskappy genaamd Digidyne wou sy RDOS bedryfstelsel te gebruik op sy eie hardeware kloon. Data-generaal het geweier om hul sagteware te lisensieer (dit was moeilik om te doen, want dit was op die boeke as 'n gratis bate), en beweer hulle "die bundelen regte". Die Hooggeregshof het 'n presedent Digidyne v Data-generaal in 1985. Die Hoogste Hof laat 'n 9de kring besluit stand, en Data-generaal is uiteindelik gedwing om in die lisensiëring van die bedryfstelsel sagteware, want dit is beslis dat die beperking van die lisensie net DG hardeware was 'n onwettige vasmaak reëling. [5] Kort daarna, IBM se gepubliseer sy DOS bron vir gratis, [verwysing benodig] en Microsoft is gebore. Kan nie die verlies van die prokureur se fooie te onderhou nie, Data-generaal beland deur EMC Corporation oorgeneem. Die Hooggeregshof besluit het dit moontlik om die waarde van sagteware, en ook die aankoop van Softwarepatenten. Die skuif deur IBM was byna 'n protes teen die tyd. Min in die bedryf het geglo dat enige iemand sou trek uit dit anders as IBM (deur middel van gratis publisiteit). Microsoft en Apple was dus in staat om kontant op 'sagte' produkte.
Daar is vandag baie suksesvolle maatskappye wat slegs sagteware produkte verkoop, maar daar is nog baie algemene sagteware lisensie probleme as gevolg van die kompleksiteit van ontwerpe en swak dokumentasie, wat lei tot patent trolle.
Met 'n oop sagteware spesifikasies en die moontlikheid van die sagteware lisensie, nuwe geleenthede ontstaan ​​het vir sagteware wat dan die de facto standaard geword het, soos DOS vir bedryfstelsels, maar ook verskeie eiendom woordverwerking en sigbladprogramme. In 'n soortgelyke groei patroon, privaat ontwikkeling metodes het standaard sagteware ontwikkeling metodiek.
Tipes van sagteware
'N laag struktuur te toon waar die bedryfstelsel stelselprogrammatuur en toepassingsprogrammatuur geleë is, terwyl hy loop op 'n tipiese lessenaar rekenaar
Sagteware sluit al die verskillende vorme en rolle wat digitaal gestoor data en speel in 'n rekenaar (of soortgelyke stelsel), ongeag of die data as kode vir 'n CPU, of 'n ander tolk gebruik is, en of dit verteenwoordig ander vorme van inligting . Sagteware sluit dus 'n wye verskeidenheid van produkte wat ontwikkel kan word met behulp van verskillende tegnieke soos gewone programmeertale, scripting tale, eruit, of 'n FPGA opset.
Die tipe van sagteware sluit webblaaie ontwikkel in tale en raamwerke soos HTML, PHP, Perl, JSP, ASP.NET, XML, en lessenaar programme soos OpenOffice.org, Microsoft Word ontwikkel in tale soos C, C + +, Objective-C, Java , C #, of Smalltalk. Toepassingsprogrammatuur loop gewoonlik op 'n onderliggende sagteware bedryfstelsels soos Linux of Microsoft Windows. Sagteware (firmware) word ook gebruik in die video speletjies en vir die moontlike dele van die logika van motors, televisie en ander verbruiker elektronika.
Praktiese rekenaarstelsels sagteware stelsels verdeel in drie groot klasse [verwysing benodig]: stelsel sagteware, programmeer programmatuur en toepassingsprogrammatuur, maar die onderskeid is arbitrêr, en dikwels vervaag.
[Wysig] Stelselsagteware
Hoofartikel: stelselprogrammatuur
Stelselprogrammatuur is rekenaar sagteware ontwerp om die rekenaar hardeware te bedryf basiese funksionaliteit te voorsien en 'n platform te verskaf vir die bestuur van die toepassing sagteware [6] [7] Stelselsagteware sluit device drivers, bedryfstelsels, bedieners, nuts, en venster.
Stelselprogrammatuur is verantwoordelik vir die bestuur van 'n verskeidenheid van onafhanklike hardeware komponente, sodat hulle in harmonie kan saamwerk. Die doel daarvan is die toepassing sagteware programmeerder aan sy hart van die dikwels komplekse besonderhede van die spesifieke rekenaar wat gebruik word, insluitende sulke toebehore as kommunikasie-toestelle, drukkers, toestel lesers, uitstallings en keyboards, en ook om te partisie die rekenaar se hulpbronne soos geheue en verwerker tyd in 'n veilige en stabiele wyse.
[Wysig] Programmering sagteware
Hoofartikel: Programmering instrument
Programmering sagteware gereedskap in die vorm van programme of programme wat sagteware-ontwikkelaars gebruik om te skep, ontfout, in stand te hou, of andersins ander programme en programme te ondersteun. Die term verwys gewoonlik relatief eenvoudige programme soos vertalers, debug gers, tolke, linkers en teks editors, wat gekombineer kan word om 'n taak uit te voer, soveel as 'n mens kan verskeie handgereedskap gebruik om 'n fisiese voorwerp op te los. Programmering gereedskap is bedoel om 'n programmeerder om te help in die skryf van rekenaarprogramme, en hulle kan gekombineer word in 'n geïntegreerde ontwikkelings-omgewing (IO) makliker te bestuur al hierdie funksies.
[Wysig] Toepassingsprogrammatuur
Hoofartikel: toepassingsprogrammatuur
Aansoek sagteware word ontwikkel in 'n taak uit te voer dat die voordele van berekening. Dit is 'n reeks van programme wat toelaat dat die rekenaar 'n spesifieke data verwerking van werk vir die gebruiker uit te voer. Dit is 'n breë kategorie, en sluit sagteware van baie soorte, insluitende die internet browser wat gebruik word om hierdie bladsy te vertoon.
[Wysig] Sagteware onderwerpe


[Wysig] Architecture
Sien ook: Sagteware argitektuur
Gebruikers dikwels sien dinge anders as programmeerders. Mense wat moderne algemene doel rekenaars (in teenstelling met ingeboude stelsels, analoog rekenaars en super) gebruik gewoonlik drie lae van die sagteware wat 'n verskeidenheid van take verrig: die platform, toepassing en gebruikers sagteware.
Platform sagteware: Platform sluit die firmware, device drivers, 'n bedryfstelsel, en tipies 'n grafiese gebruikerskoppelvlak wat in totaal 'n gebruiker toelaat om te kommunikeer met die rekenaar en sy randapparatuur (geassosieer toerusting). Platform sagteware kom dikwels saam met die rekenaar. Op 'n rekenaar sal jy gewoonlik het die vermoë om die platform sagteware te verander.
Aansoek sagteware: Aansoek sagteware of programme wat die meeste mense dink wanneer hulle dink van sagteware. Tipiese voorbeelde sluit kantoor suites-en video-speletjies. Aansoek sagteware word dikwels gekoop apart van rekenaar hardeware. Soms aansoeke word saam met die rekenaar, maar dit verander nie die feit dat hulle as onafhanklike programme hardloop. Aansoeke word gewoonlik onafhanklike programme van die bedryfstelsel, al is hulle dikwels aangepas is vir spesifieke platforms. Die meeste mense dink van die samestellers, databasisse, en ander "stelsel sagteware" as aansoeke.
Gebruikers geskryf sagteware: Eindgebruiker-ontwikkeling tailors gebruikers se spesifieke behoeftes te voldoen. Gebruiksprogrammatuur sluit in 'n sigblad templates en woordverwerker templates. Selfs e-filters is 'n soort van die gebruiker sagteware. Gebruikers hierdie sagteware self skep en dikwels vergeet hoe belangrik dit is. Afhangende van hoe bedrewe die gebruiker geskryf sagteware is opgeneem in standaard toepassingspakkette, kan baie gebruikers nie bewus van die onderskeid tussen die oorspronklike pakkette, en wat is bygevoeg deur mede-werkers.
Dokumentasie
Hoofartikel: Sagteware dokumentasie
Die meeste sagteware het sagteware dokumentasie, sodat die gebruiker kan die program, wat dit doen, en hoe om dit te gebruik verstaan. Sonder duidelik dokumentasie, kan die sagteware moeilik wees om te gebruik - veral as dit 'n baie gespesialiseerde en relatief komplekse soos Photoshop of AutoCAD.
Ontwikkelaar dokumentasie kan ook bestaan, hetsy met die kode as kommentaar en / of as afsonderlike lêers, besonderhede oor hoe die program werk en kan verander word.
Biblioteek
Hoofartikel: Sagteware biblioteek
'N uitvoerbare is byna altyd nie voldoende volledige vir direkte uitvoering. Sagteware biblioteke sluit in die versameling van funksies en funksies wat in ander toepassings ingebed word. Bedryfstelsels sluit baie standaard sagteware biblioteke, en aansoeke word dikwels met hul eie biblioteke versprei.
[Wysig] Eenvoudige
Hoofartikel: Sagteware standaard
Sedert sagteware kan ontwerp word om die gebruik van verskillende programmeertale en in baie verskillende bedryfstelsels en bedryfstelsel omgewing, sagteware standaard is nodig om so dat ander sagteware kan verstaan ​​en die uitruil van inligting tussen mekaar. Byvoorbeeld, moet 'n e-pos gestuur word vanaf 'n Microsoft Outlook leesbaar vanaf Yahoo! Mail, en omgekeerd.
[Wysig] uitvoering
Hoofartikel: Uitvoering (computing)
Rekenaarprogrammatuur word "gelaai" in die rekenaar se stoor (soos die hardeskyf of geheue). Sodra die sagteware gelaai, die rekenaar is in staat om die sagteware te voer. Dit behels die verbygaande instruksies van die toepassing sagteware, deur middel van die stelsel sagteware, aan die hardeware wat uiteindelik die opdrag as die masjien kode ontvang. Elke onderrig veroorsaak dat die rekenaar 'n operasie uit te voer - en beweeg van data, die uitvoering van 'n berekening, of die verandering van die beheer vloei van instruksies.
Data beweging is tipies van die een plek in die geheue na die ander. Soms is dit behels die verskuiwing van data tussen geheue en registers wat in staat stel hoë spoed toegang tot die inligting in die SVE. Bewegende data, veral groot hoeveelhede daarvan, kan duur wees. So word dit soms deur die gebruik van "pointers" tot inligting in plaas vermy. Berekeninge sluit in 'n eenvoudige operasies soos die verhoog van die waarde van 'n veranderlike data element. Meer komplekse berekeninge kan betrek baie operasies en data-elemente saam.
Gehalte en betroubaarheid
Hoofartikels: Sagteware gehalte, Software toets, en sagteware betroubaarheid
Kwaliteit van die sagteware is baie belangrik, veral vir kommersiële en stelselprogrammatuur soos die Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows en Linux. As die sagteware is foutief (buggy), dit kan 'n persoon se werk verwyder, crash die rekenaar en ander onverwagte dinge doen. Foute en foute word genoem "foute." Baie foute ontdek en uitgeskakel (ontfout) deur software te toets. Sagteware toets selde - indien ooit - elimineer egter elke fout, sommige programmeerders sê dat "elke program het ten minste een fout" (Lubarsky se wet). Alle groot sagteware maatskappye, soos Microsoft, Novell en Sun Microsystems, het hul eie sagteware toets departemente met die spesifieke doel van die net toets. Sagteware kan getoets word deur die eenheid toets, regressie toets en ander metodes, wat die hand gedoen word, of mees algemeen, outomaties, aangesien die bedrag van die kode om getoets te word, kan baie groot wees. Byvoorbeeld, NASA het baie streng sagteware toets prosedures vir verskeie bedryfstelsels en kommunikasie funksies. Baie NASA-gebaseerde bedrywighede interaksie en identifiseer mekaar deur opdrag programme genoem sagteware. Dit stel baie mense wat werk by NASA te monitor en te evalueer funksionele stelsels algehele. Programme met opdrag sagteware hardeware ingenieurswese en stelsel bedrywighede in staat stel om baie makliker saam te funksioneer.
Lisensie
Hoofartikel: Sagteware lisensie
Die sagteware se lisensie gee die gebruiker die reg om die sagteware te gebruik in die gelisensieerde omgewing. Sommige sagteware kom met die lisensie toe gekoop van die rak af, of 'n OEM-lisensie wanneer dit saam met die hardeware. Ander sagteware kom met 'n vrye sagteware lisensie, die toekenning van die ontvanger om die regte aan te pas en verder versprei die sagteware. Sagteware kan ook wees in die vorm van freeware of shareware.
Patente
Van hoofartikels: Software patent en sagteware patent debat
Sagteware gepatenteer kan word in 'n paar, maar nie alle lande, egter, sagteware patente kan omstrede in die sagteware-industrie met baie mense verskillende menings oor dit. Die omstredenheid oor die sagteware patente is oor die spesifieke algoritmes en tegnieke wat die programmatuur bevat, wat deur ander mag nie gedupliseer en word beskou as intellektuele eiendom en kopiereg oortreding afhangende van die erns.
Ontwerp en implementering


Hoofartikels: Sagteware ontwikkeling, Rekenaarprogramering, en sagteware-ingenieurswese
Ontwerp en implementering van programmatuur wissel, afhangende van die kompleksiteit van die sagteware. Byvoorbeeld, sal die ontwerp en skepping van Microsoft Word sagteware veel meer tyd as die ontwerp en ontwikkeling van Microsoft Notepad as gevolg van die verskil in die funksies in elke een.
Sagteware word gewoonlik ontwerp en geskep is (gekodeer / geskryf is / geprogrammeer) in 'n geïntegreerde ontwikkeling omgewings (IO) soos Eclipse, Emacs en Microsoft Visual Studio wat die proses kan vereenvoudig en stel die program. Soos in verskillende afdelings, word gewoonlik sagteware geskep is op die top van 'n bestaande sagteware en die application programming interface (API) dat die onderliggende programmatuur soos GTK +, Java Beans of Swing. Biblioteke (API) word gekategoriseer vir verskillende doeleindes. Byvoorbeeld, Java Beans biblioteek word gebruik vir die ontwerp van korporatiewe toepassings, is Windows Forms biblioteek gebruik word vir die ontwerp van grafiese gebruikerskoppelvlak (GUI) programme soos Microsoft Word, en Windows Communication Foundation gebruik word vir die ontwerp van die web dienste. Onderliggende rekenaarprogrammering begrippe soos die die Quicksort, hashtable, skikking, en binêre boom kan nuttig wees tot die ontwikkeling van sagteware. Wanneer 'n program is ontwerp, dit berus op die API. Byvoorbeeld, indien 'n gebruiker die ontwerp van 'n Microsoft Windows Desktop aansoek, het hy / sy kan die NET Windows Forms biblioteek gebruik om die lessenaar toepassing en bel sy APIs soos Form1.Close () en Form1.Show () te ontwerp [8] na sluit of die aansoek oop en skryf die bykomende bedrywighede om hom / haarself wat dit nodig het. Sonder hierdie APIs, die programmeerder moet hierdie APIs wat hom / haarself te skryf. Maatskappye soos Sun Microsystems, Novell, en Microsoft hul eie API so dat baie aansoeke is geskryf deur gebruik te maak van hulle sagteware biblioteke wat gewoonlik talle APIs in hulle het.
Rekenaarprogrammatuur het spesiale ekonomiese eienskappe wat sy ontwerp, die skepping en verspreiding van die meeste ander ekonomiese goedere [spesifiseer] [9] [10].
'N Persoon wat die sagteware skep genoem word 'n programmeerder, sagteware-ingenieur, sagteware ontwikkelaar, of kode aap, terme wat almal het 'n soortgelyke betekenis.
Produksie en organisasies


Hoofartikel: sagteware-industrie
'N groot verskeidenheid van sagteware maatskappye en programmeerders in die wêreld bestaan ​​uit 'n sagteware-industrie. Sagteware kan nogal 'n winsgewende bedryf is: Bill Gates, die stigter van Microsoft, was die rykste persoon in die wêreld in 2009 grootliks deur die verkoop van die Microsoft Windows en Microsoft Office sagteware produkte. Dieselfde geld vir Larry Ellison, hoofsaaklik deur middel van sy Oracle databasis sagteware. Deur die tyd het die sagteware-industrie geword het toenemend gespesialiseerde.
Nie-winsgewende sagteware organisasies sluit in die Stigting vir Vrye Sagteware, GNU-projek en Mozilla Foundation. Sagteware standaard organisasies soos die W3C, - IETF ontwikkel sagteware standaarde so dat die meeste sagteware kan onderling deur die standaarde soos XML, HTML, HTTP en FTP.
Ander bekende groot sagteware maatskappye sluit in Novell, SAP, Symantec, Adobe Systems, en Corel, terwyl klein maatskappye dikwels vernuwing bied.




Program
Computer software, ose thjesht software, është një koleksion i programeve kompjuterike dhe të dhënave të lidhura që siguron udhëzimet për një kompjuter të thënë se çfarë duhet të bëjnë dhe si të bëhet kjo. Software i referohet një ose më shumë programet kompjuterike dhe të dhënave të mbajtura në ruajtje të kompjuterit për disa arsye. Me fjalë të tjera, software është një grup i programeve, procedurave dhe dokumentacionit të saj algoritma te interesuar me funksionimin e një sistemi të të dhënave të përpunimit. Software program kryen funksionin e programit ai zbaton, ose duke siguruar direkt udhëzimet e të pajisjeve kompjuterike ose duke i shërbyer si input në një pjesë tjetër e programeve. Termi është shpikur në kontrast me termin hardware vjetër (do të thotë pajisje fizike). Në kontrast me hardware, software "nuk mund të preken". [1] Software është përdorur edhe ndonjëherë në një kuptim më të ngushtë, do të thotë software aplikimit vetëm. Ndonjëherë termi përfshin të dhëna që nuk ka qenë tradicionalisht të lidhura me kompjuter, të tilla si film, kaseta, dhe të dhënat. [2]
Computer software është quajtur kështu për të dalluar atë nga të pajisjeve kompjuterike, e cila përfshin ndërlidhjen fizike dhe pajisjet e nevojshme për të ruajtur dhe ekzekutuar (ose drejtuar) e softuerit. Në nivelin më të ulët, Kodi i ekzekutueshëm përbëhet nga udhëzimet specifike për gjuhën e makinës një procesor individuale. Një gjuhë makinë përbëhet nga grupe të vlerave binare nënkuptuar udhëzime procesor që të ndryshojë gjendjen e kompjuterit nga shteti i saj paraprak. Programet janë një sekuencë urdhëroi e udhëzimeve për ndryshimin e gjendjes së kompjuterit në një sekuencë të veçantë. Ajo është shkruar zakonisht në të nivelit të lartë gjuhë programimi që janë më të lehtë dhe më efikas për njerëzit për të përdorur (më afër gjuhës natyrore) se sa gjuhën e makinës. Të nivelit të lartë gjuhët janë hartuar apo interpretuar në gjuhën e makinës kod objekt. Software mund të jetë e shkruar në një gjuhë të kuvendit, në thelb, një përfaqësim të kujtesës e një gjuhën e makinës duke përdorur një alfabet të gjuhës natyrore. Gjuha e Kuvendit duhet të jenë të mbledhur në kod objekt me anë të një assembler.
Përmbajtja e fjalës hide]
1 Historia
2 Llojet e programeve
2.1 Sistemi software
2.2 software Programim
2.3 Aplikimi software
3 Temat Software
3.1 Arkitektura
3.2 Dokumentacioni
3.3 Biblioteka
3.4 Standard
3.5 Ekzekutimi
3.6 Cilësia dhe besueshmëria
3.7 Leje
3.8 Patenta
4 Hartimi dhe zbatimi
5 Industrisë dhe organizata
6 Shih edhe
7 Referencat
8 Lidhje të jashtme
[Redakto] Historia


Për historinë para vitit 1946, shih Historia e hardware informatikë.


Ky seksion mund të kenë nevojë për t'u rishkruar tërësisht në përputhje me standardet e Wikipedia-së cilësisë. Ju mund të ndihmojë. Faqe diskutimi mund të përmbajë sugjerime. (Janar 2012)
Teoria e parë në lidhje me software u propozua nga Alan Turing në numrat 1935 të tij ese llogaritshëm me një kërkesë për Entscheidungsproblem (problemi Vendimi). [3] Termi "software" është përdorur më parë në shtyp nga John W. Tukey në vitin 1958. [4 ] colloquially, termi është përdorur shpesh për të thotë software aplikimit. Në shkenca kompjuterike dhe inxhinieri software, software është i gjithë informacioni i përpunuar nga sistemi kompjuterik, programet dhe të dhënat. [4] Fushat akademike që studiojnë software janë shkenca kompjuterike dhe inxhinieri software.
Historia e programeve kompjuterike është më shpesh ndiqet në bug parë softuerit në vitin 1946 [citim i duhur]. Sa më shumë programe dhe më shumë të hyjë në mbretërinë e firmware, dhe hardware vetë bëhet më e vogël, më e lirë dhe më të shpejtë të parashikuar nga ligji Moore, elementë të parë informatikë konsiderohen të jenë software, bashkohet radhëve të hardware. Shumica e kompanive hardware sot kanë programuesit më shumë software në listën e pagave se designers hardware [citim i duhur], pasi që mjetet software automatizuar kanë shumë detyra të inxhinierëve Printed Circuit Board. Ashtu si industrinë e automobilëve, industria Software është rritur nga një largpames pak veprojnë nga garazh e tyre me prototipa. Steve Jobs dhe Bill Gates kanë qenë Ford Henry dhe Louis Chevrolet të kohës së tyre [citim i duhur], i cili kapitalizuar në idetë tashmë të njohura zakonisht para se të filloi në biznes. Në rastin e zhvillimit Software, ky moment është rënë dakord në përgjithësi të jetë botimi në vitin 1980 e specifikimeve për kompjuter IBM Personal botuar nga IBM punonjës Estridge Philip Don. Sot veprim i tij do të shihet si një lloj turma-ndihmuese.
Deri në atë kohë, u software bundled me hardware nga prodhuesit e pajisjeve origjinale (OEMs) të tilla si të dhëna të përgjithshme, Digital Pajisjet dhe IBM [citim nevojshme]. Kur një konsumator ka blerë një Minicomputer, në atë kohë kompjuteri të vogël në treg, kompjuteri nuk ka ardhur me para-instaluar software, por të nevojshme për të instaluar nga inxhinierë të punësuar nga OEM. Kompanive hardware kompjuteri nuk bundled vetëm programet e tyre, ata gjithashtu vendosen kërkesat mbi vendndodhjen e pajisjeve në një hapësirë ​​frigorifer quajtur një dhomë kompjuteri. Shumica e kompanive kanë programet e tyre në librat për 0 dollarë, të paaftë për të kërkuar atë si një aktiv (kjo është e ngjashme me financimin e muzikës popullore, në ato ditë). Kur Data e Përgjithshme paraqiti te dhena te pergjithshme Nova, një kompani e quajtur Digidyne donte të përdorni sistemin e saj operativ RDOS në klon e vet hardware. Të dhënat e Përgjithshme refuzoi të licencojë programet e tyre (e cila ishte e vështirë për të bërë, pasi ajo ishte në librat si një aktiv të lirë), dhe pohoi "të drejtat e Bundling" e tyre. Gjykata Supreme vendosë një precedent të quajtur Digidyne v Të dhënat e Përgjithshme në vitin 1985. Gjykata Supreme le një 9-vendim qëndrim qark, dhe të dhëna të përgjithshme u detyrua përfundimisht në licencimin software sistemit operativ për shkak se ajo u qeveris që kufizon licencë për vetëm hardware DG ishte një marrëveshje e paligjshme i lidhur. [5] Menjëherë pas kësaj, IBM 'publikuar' burim DOS saj për të lira, [citim i duhur] dhe Microsoft ka lindur. Në pamundësi për të mbështetur humbjen nga tarifat e avokatit, Data e Përgjithshme përfundoi duke marrë përsipër nga EMC Corporation. Vendimi Gjykata e Lartë bëri të mundur software vlerës, si dhe blerjen e patentave Software. Ky veprim nga IBM ishte pothuajse një protestë në atë kohë. Pak në industrinë e besonin se dikush do të përfitojë prej saj përveç MIK (nëpërmjet publicitetit të lirë). Microsoft dhe Apple kanë qenë në gjendje për të kështu cash-it në produktet e 'të butë'.
Ka shumë kompani të suksesshme sot që shesin prodhimet e vetëm software, edhe pse ka ende shumë probleme të përbashkëta për licencimin software për shkak të kompleksitetit të harton dhe dokumentacionit të dobët, duke çuar në trolls patentë.
Me specifikimet software të hapur dhe mundësinë e licencimit të softuerit, mundësi të reja u ngrit për mjetet e softverit që pastaj u bë standard de facto, të tilla si DOS për sistemet operative, por edhe të pronarit të ndryshme të përpunimit të fjalës dhe programeve spreadsheet. Në një model rritjeje të ngjashme, metodat e pronarit të zhvillimit u bë standard të zhvillimit Software metodologji.
Llojet e programeve
Një strukturë shtresë që tregon ku e software të sistemit operativ dhe software aplikimit janë vendosur ndërkohë që kandidon për një kompjuter desktop tipik
Software përfshin të gjitha format e ndryshme dhe rolet që të dhënat e ruajtura digjitale mund të ketë dhe të luajë në një kompjuter (apo sistem i ngjashëm), pavarësisht nëse të dhënave është përdorur si kod për një CPU, ose përkthyes tjetër, ose nëse ajo përfaqëson llojet e tjera të informacionit . Software kështu përfshin një rrjet të gjerë të produkteve që mund të zhvillohen duke përdorur teknika të ndryshme të tilla si gjuhë programimi të zakonshme, gjuhë e shkruar, të microcode, ose një konfigurimin FPGA.
Llojet e programeve të përfshijnë faqet web të zhvilluara në gjuhë dhe kornizat si HTML, PHP, Perl, JSP, ASP.NET, XML, dhe aplikimet desktop si OpenOffice.org Word, Microsoft zhvilluar në gjuhë si C, C + +, Objektivi-C, Java , C #, apo Smalltalk. Aplikimi software zakonisht shkon në një bazë operative sistemet software tilla si Linux apo Microsoft Windows. Software (ose firmware) është përdorur edhe në video games dhe për pjesët Configurable të sistemeve të logjikën e automobila, televizorë, dhe elektronike të tjera të konsumit.
Sistemet praktike kompjuterike ndahen sistemet kompjuterike në tri klasa të mëdha [citim i duhur]: software sistemi, software programimit dhe software aplikimit, edhe pse dallimi është arbitrar, dhe shpesh e paqartë.
[Redakto] Sistemi software
Artikulli kryesor: Sistemi software
Sistemi software është softuer kompjuterik i projektuar për të vepruar e pajisjeve kompjuterike për të ofruar funksionalitet themelore dhe për të ofruar një platformë për drejtimin software aplikimit. [6] [7] Sistemi software përfshin drejtuesit pajisje, sisteme operative, serverat, shërbimet komunale, dhe sistemet e dritare.
Software sistemi është përgjegjës për menaxhimin e një shumëllojshmëri të komponentëve harduerike të pavarura, në mënyrë që ata të mund të punojnë së bashku në harmoni. Qëllimi i tij është që të shkarkoj programues software aplikimit nga detajet shpesh komplekse të kompjuterit sidomos duke u përdorur, duke përfshirë pajisje të tilla si pajisje të komunikimit, printera, lexuesit pajisje, tregon dhe tastierë, dhe gjithashtu për ndarjen burimet e kompjuterit të tilla si kujtim dhe kohën e procesorit në një mënyrë të sigurt dhe të qëndrueshme.
[Redaktoni] Programim software
Artikulli kryesor: mjet Programim
Software Programim përfshijnë mjete në formën e programeve ose aplikacionet që përdorin zhvilluesit e programeve për të krijuar, korrigjoj, të mbajë, ose ndryshe të mbështesë programet e tjera dhe aplikacionet. Termi zakonisht i referohet programeve relativisht të thjeshta, të tilla si hartuesit debuggers, përkthyes, linkers dhe redaktorët tekst, që mund të kombinuara së bashku për të kryer një detyrë, sa dikush mund të përdorin mjete të shumta dorë për të rregulluar një objekt fizik. Mjete të programimit janë të destinuara për të ndihmuar një programues me shkrim programe kompjuterike, dhe ata mund të kombinohen në një mjedis të zhvillimit të integruar (IDE) për më të lehtë të menaxhuar të gjitha këto funksione.
[Redaktoni] Zbatimi software
Artikulli kryesor: Aplikimi software
Aplikimi software është zhvilluar për të kryer në çdo detyrë që përfiton nga llogaritje. Kjo është një grup i programeve që lejon kompjuteri për të kryer një punë të caktuar të përpunimit të të dhënave për përdoruesit. Kjo është një kategori e gjerë dhe përfshin software e shumë llojeve, përfshirë shfletues të internetit duke u përdorur për të shfaqur këtë faqe.
[Edit] tema Software


[Redakto] Arkitekturë
Shih gjithashtu: arkitekturë Software
Përdoruesit që shpesh shohim gjërat ndryshe se programuesit. Njerëzit që përdorin kompjutera moderne për qëllime të përgjithshme (në krahasim me sistemet e ngulitur, kompjutera analoge dhe supercomputers) zakonisht i shohin tre shtresa e softuerit të kryejnë një sërë detyrash me:, platformë aplikimit, dhe përdorues software.
Software Platforma: Platforma përfshin, shoferët firmware pajisje, një sistem operativ, dhe zakonisht një ndërfaqe grafike të përdoruesit të cilat, në total, të lejojë një përdorues të bashkëvepruar me kompjuterin dhe pjesët e saj (për pajisjet e lidhura). Software platformë shpesh vjen bundled me kompjuter. Në një PC zakonisht ju do të keni mundësinë për të ndryshuar software platformë.
Software Aplikimi: Aplikimi software ose Aplikacione janë ato që shumica e njerëzve mendojnë se kur ata mendojnë për software. Shembuj tipike përfshijnë suita zyre dhe video games. Aplikimi software është blerë shpesh veçmas nga hardware kompjuteri. Ndonjëherë aplikacionet janë bundled me kompjuter, por që nuk ndryshon faktin se ata të kandidojë si aplikacione të pavarur. Aplikime janë zakonisht programe të pavarura nga sistemi operativ, edhe pse ata shpesh janë të përshtatura për platforma të veçanta. Shumica e përdoruesve të mendojnë për hartuesit, të bazave të të dhënave, dhe të tjera "software sistemit" si aplikacioneve.
User-shkruar software: e end-userave rrobaqepës zhvillimit të sistemeve për të përmbushur nevojat e përdoruesve të veçanta. User software spreadsheet përfshijnë templates templates dhe përpunues teksti. Edhe filtrat e-mail janë një lloj i softuerit të përdoruesit. Përdoruesit që krijojnë këtë softuer vetë dhe shpesh dal sa e rëndësishme është. Varësisht se si kompetencë software user-i shkruar ka qenë e integruar në paketa aplikimit default, shumë përdorues nuk mund të jenë të vetëdijshëm për dallimin në mes paketa origjinale, dhe çfarë është shtuar nga bashkë-punëtorëve.
Dokumentacioni
Artikulli kryesor: Dokumentacioni Software
Shumica e programeve ka dokumentacionin e softuerit në mënyrë që përdoruesi mund të kuptoni në fund të programit, çfarë e bën atë, dhe si të përdorin atë. Pa dokumentacion të qartë, software mund të jetë e vështirë për t'u përdorur, sidomos në qoftë se ajo është shumë e specializuar dhe relativisht komplekse si Photoshop apo AutoCAD.
Dokumentacioni Zhvilluesish mund të ekzistojnë, ose me kodin si komentet dhe / ose fotografi të veçanta, duke detajuar se si programet e punon dhe mund të ndryshohet.
Bibliotekë
Artikulli kryesor: Biblioteka Software
Një ekzekutues është pothuajse gjithmonë nuk mjaft i plotë për ekzekutimin e drejtpërdrejtë. Bibliotekat Software përfshijnë koleksionet e funksioneve dhe funksionalitetin që mund të ngulitura në aplikacione tjera. Sistemet operative përfshijnë biblioteka shumë standarde Software, dhe aplikacionet janë shpërndarë shpesh me bibliotekat e tyre.
[Redaktoni] Standardi
Artikulli kryesor: standard Software
Që software mund të jetë projektuar duke përdorur gjuhë të ndryshme programimi dhe në shumë sisteme operative dhe ambiente të ndryshme operative, standard software është e nevojshme në mënyrë që software të ndryshëm mund të kuptojmë dhe të shkëmbejnë informacion midis njëri-tjetrin. Për shembull, një email dërguar nga një Microsoft Outlook duhet të jetë i lexueshëm nga Yahoo! Mail dhe anasjelltas.
[Redaktoni] Ekzekutimi
Artikulli kryesor: Ekzekutimi (informatikë)
Computer software duhet të "ngarkuar" në ruajtjen e kompjuterit (të tilla si hard drive ose memorie). Pasi software është i ngarkuar, kompjuteri është në gjendje për të ekzekutuar programet. Kjo përfshin kalimin udhëzime nga software aplikimit, nëpërmjet sistemit kompjuterik, në harduer i cili në fund të fundit merr udhëzimin si kod makine. Çdo udhëzim shkakton kompjuteri për të kryer një operacion - lëviz dhënave, kryerjen e një llogaritje, ose duke ndryshuar rrjedhën e kontrollit të udhëzimeve.
Data lëvizje është zakonisht nga një vend në kujtesën në një tjetër. Ndonjëherë ajo përfshin të dhëna të lëvizin mes kujtesës dhe regjistrat të cilat mundësojnë me shpejtësi të lartë qasje të dhënave në CPU. Të dhënat lëvizin, veçanërisht shumat e mëdha të saj, mund të jetë i kushtueshëm. Pra, kjo është shmangur ndonjëherë duke përdorur "" pointers në të dhënat në vend. Computations përfshijnë operacionet e thjeshta të tilla si rritjen e vlerës së një element të ndryshueshëm të dhënave. Llogaritjet më të ndërlikuara mund të përfshijë shumë operacione dhe të dhënat elemente së bashku.
Cilësia dhe besueshmëria
Artikujt kryesore: të cilësisë Software, Software, testimin dhe besueshmërinë Software
Cilësia Software është shumë e rëndësishme, sidomos për softuer komercial dhe sistem si Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows dhe Linux. Nëse software është i gabuar (kaloshin), ajo mund të fshini punën e një personi, përplasje e kompjuterit dhe të bëjë gjëra të tjera të papritura. Gabimet dhe gabimet janë quajtur "mete". Mete Shumë prej tyre janë zbuluar dhe eliminuar (debugged) nëpërmjet testimit software. Megjithatë, testimi software rrallë - nëse ndonjëherë - eliminon çdo bug; disa programuesit thonë se "çdo program ka të paktën një më shumë bug" (Ligji Lubarsky-së). Të gjitha kompanitë e mëdha software, të tilla si Microsoft, Novell dhe Sun Microsystems, kanë departamentet e tyre të testimit të softuerit me qëllim të veçantë të vetëm testimit. Software mund të testohen nëpërmjet testimit njësi, testimin e regresionit dhe metoda të tjera, të cilat janë bërë me dorë, ose më së shpeshti, automatikisht, pasi sasia e kodit të testohet mund të jetë mjaft i madh. Për shembull, NASA ka jashtëzakonisht rigoroze procedura e testimit software për sistemet operative të shumta dhe funksionet e komunikimit. Shumë operacione NASA bazë të ndërveprojnë dhe të identifikojnë njëri-tjetrin nëpërmjet programeve komanduese të quajtur software. Kjo mundëson që shumë njerëz të cilët punojnë në NASA për të kontrolluar dhe vlerësuar sistemet funksionale të përgjithshëm. Programet që përmbajnë softuer komandues mundëson inxhinieri dhe sistem hardware operacioneve të funksionojë shumë më e lehtë së bashku.
Leje
Artikulli kryesor: Licenca Software
Licenca e software-së i jep përdoruesit të drejtën për të përdorur software në mjedisin e licencuar. Disa software vjen me licencë, kur bleu off raft apo një licencë OEM kur bundled me hardware. Programe të tjera vjen me një licencë software të lirë, duke i dhënë marrësit të drejtat për të ndryshuar dhe rishpërndarë software. Software mund të jetë në formën e freeware ose shareware.
Patenta
Artikujt kryesore: patentë Programe dhe Software patentë debat
Software mund të patentuar në disa por jo të gjitha vendet, por patentat software mund të jetë i diskutueshëm në industrinë e softuerit me shumë njerëz që mbajnë pikëpamje të ndryshme rreth tij. Polemika mbi patenta software është rreth algoritme specifike apo teknikat që përmban software, të cilat nuk mund të dyfishohen nga të tjerët duke e konsideruar pronën intelektuale dhe copyright infringement në varësi të ashpërsia.
Hartimi dhe zbatimi


Nenet kryesore: zhvillimi Software, programimi kompjuterike dhe inxhinieri Software
Hartimin dhe zbatimin e programeve ndryshon në varësi të kompleksitetit të softuerit. Për shembull, dizajni dhe krijimi i softuerit Microsoft Word do të marrë kohë shumë më tepër se hartimin dhe zhvillimin e Microsoft Notepad për shkak të dallimit në funksionalitete në secilën prej tyre.
Software është projektuar zakonisht dhe krijoi (koduar / shkrim / programuar) në mjediset e zhvillimit të integruar (IDE) si Eclipse, i Emacs dhe Microsoft Visual Studio që mund të lehtësuar procesin dhe të hartojnë programin. Siç është përmendur në seksionin tjetër, është krijuar software zakonisht në krye të programeve ekzistuese dhe programimit aplikimit Interface (API) se software themelor ofron si GTK +, JavaBeans apo ritëm. Bibliotekat (TV) janë të kategorizuar për qëllime të ndryshme. Për shembull, JavaBeans bibliotekë është përdorur për hartimin e aplikimeve ndërmarrje, Windows Forms bibliotekë është përdorur për hartimin Graphical User Interface (GUI) aplikacione si Microsoft Word, dhe Windows Komunikimi Fondacioni është përdorur për dizajnimin e ueb shërbime. Konceptet themelore të programimit kompjuter si, quicksort hashtable grup,, dhe pemë binare mund të jenë të dobishme për krijimin e softuerit. Kur një program është hartuar, ajo mbështetet në API. Për shembull, nëse një përdorues është projektim një aplikim Microsoft Windows desktop, ai / ajo mund të përdorni. NET bibliotekën e Windows Forms për të hartuar kërkesën desktop dhe thirrjen e tij si Apis Form1.Close () dhe Form1.Show () [8] për mbyllur ose të hapur aplikimin dhe shkruani aktivitete te tjera atij / veten se ajo duhet të ketë. Pa këto TV, programues ka nevojë për të shkruar këto TV atij / saj. Kompanitë si Sun Microsystems, Novell dhe Microsoft ofrojnë TV e tyre në mënyrë që shumë aplikime janë shkruar duke përdorur bibliotekat e tyre software që zakonisht kanë TV të shumta në to.
Computer software ka karakteristika të veçanta ekonomike që e bëjnë krijimin e saj, të projektimit, dhe shpërndarjen ndryshme nga mallrat më të tjera ekonomike. [Specifiko] [9] [10]
Një person që krijon softuer është quajtur një programues, inxhinier software, software zhvilluesi i saj, apo majmun kodi, kushtet që të gjithë kanë një kuptim të ngjashëm.
Industrisë dhe organizata

Albanes:
Artikulli kryesor: Industria Software
Një shumëllojshmëri e madhe e kompanive të softuerit dhe programuesit në botë përbëjnë një industri të softuerit. Software mund të jenë krejt të një industri fitimprurëse: Bill Gates, themeluesi i Microsoft-it ishte personi më i pasur në botë në vitin 2009 kryesisht nga shitja e Microsoft Windows dhe Microsoft Office software produkteve. E njëjta gjë vlen edhe për Larry Ellison, kryesisht përmes Oracle software tij bazës së të dhënave. Nëpër kohë industria e software është bërë gjithnjë e më të specializuara.
Organizatat jofitimprurëse software përfshijnë Free Software Foundation, e GNU Projektit dhe Mozilla Foundation. Organizatat Software standarde si W3C, IETF zhvillojnë standardeve softuerike në mënyrë që software shumica mund të ndërveprojnë nëpërmjet standardeve të tilla si XML, HTML, HTTP ose FTP.
Të tjera të njohura kompanitë e mëdha software përfshijnë Novell, SAP, Symantec, Adobe Systems, dhe Corel, ndërsa kompanitë e vogla shpesh japin risi.













No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario en la entrada